Saturday, 17 September 2016

Network Questions And Answers

1) What is Routing?
Routing is the process of finding a path on which data can pass from source to destination. Routing is done by a device called routers, which are network layer devices.
2) What is the purpose of the Data Link?
The job of the Data Link layer is to check messages are sent to the right device. Another function of this layer is framing.
3) What is latency?
Latency is the amount of time delay that measures the point from which a network device receives a data frame to the time it sends it out again towards another network segment.
4) What is subnetting?
Subnetting is the process of creating smaller networks from a big parent network. Being a part of a network, each subnet is assigned some additional parameters or identifier to indicate its subnet number.
5) How are internetworks created?
Internetworks are created when networks are connected using routers. Specifically, the network administrator assigns a logical address to every network that connects to the router.
6)  What are packets?
Packets are the results of data encapsulation. These are data that has been wrapped under the different protocols of the OSI layers. Packets are also referred to as datagrams.
7) What are segments?
Segments are sections of a data stream that comes from the upper OSI layers and ready for transmission towards the network. Segments are the logic units at the Transport Layer.

8) Mention what is the size of IP address?
Size of IP address is 32 bit for IPv4 and 128 bit for IPv6.

9)  Mention what is DHCP?
DHCP stands for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol.  DHCP assigns an IP address automatically to a given workstation client.  You can also make static IPS for machines like printers, servers, routers and scanners.
10)  Mention what is the difference between dynamic IP and static IP addressing?
Dynamically IP addresses are provided by DHCP server and static IP address are given manually.

11) Mention what are the ranges for the private IPS?
Ranges for private IPS are
  • Class A: –
  • Class B: –
  • Class C: –
12) Mention what is the difference between TCP and UDP?
TCP and UDP both are protocols for sending files across computer network
          TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)
             UDP (User Datagram Protocol)
TCP is connection oriented protocol. When connection lost during transferring files, the server would request the lost part.  While transferring a message, there is no corruption while transferring a message
UDP is based on connectionless protocol. When you send data, there is no guarantee whether your transferred message will reach there without any leakage
The message will deliver in the order it is sent
The message you sent may not be in the same order
Data in TCP is read as a stream, where one packet ends, and another begins
Packets are transmitted individually and are guaranteed to be whole if they arrive
Example of TCP includes World Wide Web, file transfer protocol, e-mail,
Example for UDP are VOIP (Voice Over Internet Protocol) TFTP ( Trivial File Transfer Protocol),

13) What is communication and how it is differ to transmission?
Communication means exchanging of data between source and destination. Whereas, transmission refers to only transferring of data from source to receiver.
14 ) What is point-to-point transmission protocol?
It is an industry standard in which the exchange of multiport datagrams is done use of protocol that is providing point-to-point link.  

15) Difference between public IP and private IP?
Public IP should be unique address that is assigned to a company. Private address can be used by anyone on private network because it is not recognized by the internet.

Sunday, 11 September 2016

DDos && DOS Script Tools

How To Use DDOS Tool 

DOS Tool  

GoldenEye is an python app for SECURITY TESTING PURPOSES ONLY!
GoldenEye is a HTTP DoS Test Tool.
Attack Vector exploited: HTTP Keep Alive + NoCache

How To Use Dos Tool  

Download Tool : 

Download Tool :

Thursday, 8 September 2016



Finsploit is a simple bash script to quickly and easily search both local and online exploit databases. This repository also includes "copysploit" to copy any exploit-db exploit to the current directory and "compilesploit" to automatically compile and run any C exploit (ie. ./copysploit 1337.c && ./compilesploit 1337.c).
For updates to this script, use git clone



How To use 

Download Tool :

Wednesday, 7 September 2016

Two functions to attack Web Application Firewalls.

WAFNinja is a CLI tool written in Python. It shall help penetration testers to bypass a WAF by automating steps necessary for bypassing input validation. The tool was created with the objective to be easily extendible, simple to use and usable in a team environment. Many payloads and fuzzing strings, which are stored in a local database file come shipped with the tool. WAFNinja supports HTTP connections, GET and POST requests and the use of Cookies in order to access pages restricted to authenticated users. Also, an intercepting proxy can be set up. 

How to use : [-h] [-v] {fuzz,bypass,insert-fuzz,insert-bypass,set-db} ... 

Example Usage: fuzz: python fuzz -u "" -c "phpsessid=value" -t xss -o output.html 

bypass: python bypass -u "" -p "Name=PAYLOAD&Submit=Submit" -c "phpsessid=value" -t xss -o output.html

insert-fuzz: python insert-fuzz -i select -e select -t sql

positional arguments: {fuzz,bypass,insert-fuzz,insert-bypass,set-db} Which function do you want to use?   

Demo :  

fuzz                check which symbols and keywords are allowed by the WAF.
bypass              sends payloads from the database to the target.
insert-fuzz         add a fuzzing string
insert-bypass       add a payload to the bypass list
set-db              use another database file. Useful to share the same database with others. 

optional arguments: -h, --help show this help message and exit -v, --version show program's version number and exit  

Author : khalilbijjou 
Download Tool :

Friday, 15 April 2016

Who is responsible for your cloud application breach?

Cloud application security has been a big concern of lately due to several data breaches occurring in the cloud services such as the icloud hack, Target, Home Depot, United States internal Revenue system. Therefore the security of application poses a question as where does the responsibility of the application security lie?
Is it with the vendor or the company or person availing the services? The answer goes both sides, as the security aspect of the server side is only covered by the vendor of the cloud application services the client side still needs the security which is mostly overlooked by the people or the companies.
The client side application security is of utmost importance as only the server side security is not enough to protect the application from security breaches.
The different kind of security threats which pose a great danger to the cloud application security are as follows:

Data breaches

  • Account Hijacking
  • Compromised credentials
  • Permanent Data loss
  • Shared Technologies
  • Cloud service abuse
  • Hacked Interface and API


Data Breaches

This is one of the biggest threat to the cloud services because of the vast amount of data stored on the cloud servers. The sensitivity of the data can be imagined easily, as the cloud is storing the financial details as well as personal details of millions of people. And if this vast amount of data is breached in any case it will cause a downfall of the company and also a threat to the lives of people who have been exposed due to the breach.


Account Hijacking

This attack has been there for a quite long time, it includes Fraud, Phishing, Software Exploits etc. Using these kind of attacks, the cloud services can be compromised and can lead to launching of other attacks, changing the settings of account, manipulate transactions, uploading malwares and illegal contents.


Compromised Credentials

The credentials are compromised generally due to weak passwords, casual authentication, poor key or certificate management. Also the identity access management becomes a problem as the user access are sometimes not changed with the job role and responsibilities or when the user leaves the organization.
Embedding credentials and cryptographic keys in source code and leaving them in the online repositories such as GitHub also makes a big vulnerability which can be exploited easily. Aligning the identity with the cloud provider needs an understanding of the security measures taken in account.


Permanent Data Loss

Malicious hackers have gained access to the cloud services and deleted data permanently in the past affecting the business. Also the cloud data centers are vulnerable to natural disasters which can swipe away the data which has been stored on the cloud.
If the user encrypts the data before uploading to the cloud and loses the key then data is lost. Thus the client side protection of data should be managed and well kept. Permanent data loss can lead to financial crisis and disruption of the working system.


Shared Technologies

As the cloud service providers share infrastructure, platforms and applications from different sources therefore any reconfiguration or vulnerability in these layers affects the users and can also lead to compromise of the users system as well as the cloud depending upon the potential of the vulnerability.
Thus the security alone at the cloud server side is not only the real issue, Security has to be maintained at a vast level consisting of all the aspects of the cloud environment. The client side also needs to be secured as the attacks also possible from the client side due to low or no security measures.


Cloud Service Abuse

Cloud applications are breached to gain access to the commanding position in the cloud where the resources can be used for different malicious purposes such as launching a DDOS attacks or sending bulk spams and phishing emails, breaking an encryption key or hosting Malicious content.
This abuse may lead to unavailability of the services or can also lead to loss of data of the users stored on the cloud, therefore it is very much necessary to secure the applications from abuse.


Hacked Interface and API

To build an application now the developers are using ready to use interfaces and API to make their work simple, but these API’s and Interfaces tend to be the most exposed part of the system as they are available freely on the internet.
Almost every cloud service and application now offer API, IT reams are using these interfaces to interact with the cloud services such as management, provisioning, monitoring etc. Thus the level of threat to the cloud services increases manifold. This requires rigorous code reviews and penetrating testing to secure the application and services.



As we see that there are a lot of possibilities of breaching your data stored in the cloud due to the importance of data. Therefore your data cannot be secured alone just by the cloud service provider, there is a shear work required from the client side to protect the application and data from the outer security threats. Therefore security audits should be done in order to secure your precious data from threats.

Please do not hesitate to contact us for your budget security test [email protected].